Begriffe & Definitionen


Accidental misdescription

Unintentionally causing a mismatch between food product claims and food product characteristics

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Intentionally adding an unapproved or undeclared ingredient to the food product

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Intentionally adding an unapproved, undeclared, or inactive ingredient to the food product, or substituting a declared ingredient with another ingredient

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Match between the food product characteristics and the corresponding food product claims

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Process of verifying the authenticity of the food product

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


State of being authentic

CWA 17369:2019 (E)



Distinguishing feature of the product

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Statement where a product is said or implied to have a certain characteristic

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Process of hiding the low quality of a food ingredient or product

GFSI types of food fraud


The process of copying the brand name, packaging concept, recipe, processing method,etc. of food products for economic gain.

GFSI types of food fraud



The process of mixing a liquid ingredient with high value with a liquid of lower value.

GFSI types of food fraud


End consumer

The ultimate consumer of a foodstuff who will not use the food as part of any food business operation or activity

IFS Standard 7.0


Food authenticity

The characteristic of a food in relation to its origin, and/or process of production and/or its inherent properties (e.g. organoleptic or chemical).

IFS Standard 7.0

Food defence

Procedures implemented to assure the protection of food and their supply chain from malicious and ideologically motivated threats.

IFS Standard 7.0

Food fraud mitigation plan

A process that defines the requirements on when, where and how to mitigate fraudulent activities, identified by a food fraud vulnerability assessment. The resulting plan will define the measures and checks that are required to be in place to effectively mitigate the identified risks. The control measures required to be put into place may vary according to the nature of:
• the food fraud (substitution, mislabelling, adulteration or counterfeiting)
• detection methodology
• type of surveillance (inspection, audit, analytical, product certification)
• source of the raw materials and packaging materials

IFS Standard 7.0

Food fraud vulnerability assessment

A systematic documented form of risk assessment to identify the risks of possible food fraud activity within the supply chain (including all raw materials, food, packaging materials and outsourced processes). The method of risk assessment may vary from company to company, however the systematic methodology for food fraud vulnerability assessment shall include, at a minimum:
• The identification of potential food fraud activities, using known and reliable data sources.
• The evaluation of the level of risk, both product and supply source.
• The evaluation for the need for additional control measures.
• The development and implementation of the food fraud mitigation plan, using the results of the vulnerability assessment.
• An annual review, or more often if there is increased risk identified by change to defined risk criteria. The criteria used to evaluate the level of risk should be as follows:
• History of food fraud incidents
• Economic factors
• Ease of fraudulent activity
• Supply chain complexity
• Current control measures
• Supplier confidence.

IFS Standard 7.0

Food fraud

The intentional substitution, mislabelling, adulteration or counterfeiting of food, raw materials or packaging materials placed upon the market for economic gain. This definition also applies to outsourced processes.

IFS Standard 7.0



Any substance, including food additives, used in the manufacturing or preparation of a food which remains in the finished product, even in the modified form

IFS Standard 7.0



Mismatch between the actual food product characteristic and the corresponding food product claim, mislabelling is also used to refer to when the label is not in accordance with relevant requirements or regulations.

CWA 17369:2019 (E)



The geographical origin of food refers to the specific geographic region or area where a particular food product is produced or originates from. This can include factors such as the climate, soil, water, and other environmental conditions in the area where the food is grown, as well as cultural and historical factors that may contribute to the unique characteristics and flavor of the food. In some cases, the geographical origin of a food product may be legally protected and used as a marketing tool to promote the product's authenticity and quality.




Protected designation of origin defined under regulation (EU) N° 1151/2012.

IFS Standard 7.0


Protected geographical indication defined under regulation (EU) N° 1151/2012

IFS Standard 7.0

Product integrity

The product safety, quality and other properties or criteria that are defined by the company or customer

IFS Standard 7.0

Product tampering

Type of food fraud which includes the deliberate changing of food product characteristics so that they no longer match the implicit or explicit claims associated with the product

CWA 17369:2019 (E)


Record tampering

Type of food fraud which includes the deliberate changing of explicit food product claims so that they no longer match the known characteristics

CWA 17369:2019 (E)

Reference samples

Reference samples are samples that are sampled in a defined and controlled way in order to compare testing values and characteristics of control samples with them.



Intentionally removing naturally occurring ingredients from a food product without declaration

CWA 17369:2019 (E)



Intentionally replacing a declared ingredient in a food product with another ingredient

CWA 17369:2019 (E)



Ability to trace and follow a food, feed, food-producing animal or substance intended to be, or expected to be incorporated into a food or feed, through all stages of production and distribution

IFS Standard 7.0


Unapproved enhancements

The process of adding unknown and undeclared materials to food products in order to enhance their quality attributes.

GFSI types of food fraud

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